Whiplash Symptoms and Care
Symptoms of Whiplash and Chiropractic Care, by George Langlitz III, CCSP Certified Chiropractic Sports Physician Physicians Plus Springfield, MA, USA
Injuries to the neck caused by a sudden movement of the head, backward, forward, or sideways, is referred to as “Whiplash. “Whether from a car accident, sports, or an accident at work, whiplash or other neck injuries warrant a thorough chiropractic check-up. The biggest danger with whiplash injuries is that the symptoms can take years to develop. Too often people don’t seek treatment until more serious complications develop.
Even after whiplash victims settle their insurance claims, some 45% report they still suffer with symptoms two years later. In the past a typical whiplash injury, where no bones were broken, was hard to document. Soft tissue injury didn’t show up on normal x-rays/radiographs and insurance companies would deny coverage. Literally adding insult to injury, the patient suffering all too real pain was considered to be a fraud, a liar, or at best a hypochondriac. New imaging devices (CAT Scans, Magnetic Imaging, and Ultra Sound) now show soft tissue injury and insurance companies now cover most whiplash injuries. When no bones are broken and the head doesn’t strike the windshield, typical symptoms are as follows: 62% to 98% complain of neck pain, which typically starts two hours up to two days after the accident. This is often the result of tightened muscles that react to either muscle tears or excessive movement of joints from ligament damage. The muscles tighten in an effort to splint and support the head, limiting the excessive movement.
Soft Tissues – Cervical Spine
Sixty-six to 70% of those suffering from whiplash complain of headache. The pain may be on one side or both, on again off again or constant, in one spot or more general. These headaches, like the neck pain, are often the result of tightened, tensed muscles trying to keep the head stable and, like tension headaches, they are often felt behind the eyes. Shoulder pain often described as pain radiating down the back of the neck into the shoulder blade area, may also be the result of tensed muscles. Muscle tears are often described as burning pain, prickling or tingling. More severe disc damage may cause sharp pain with certain movements, with or without radiation into the arms, hand and fingers, which are relieved by holding your hand over your head. The chart below lists the most common whiplash symptoms. If you experience any of these symptoms, play it safe and get a chiropractic check up.
– Neck pain and/or stiffness
– Blurred vision
– Difficulty swallowing
– Pain between the shoulder blades
– Pain in the arms or legs, feet and hands
– Low back pain and/or stiffness
– Shoulder pain
– Ringing in the ears
– Numbness and tingling
– Pain in the jaw or face
How does whiplash happen?
Whiplash is most commonly received from riding in a car that is struck form behind, or collides with another vehicle. When the head is suddenly jerked back and forth beyond its normal limits, the muscles and ligaments supporting the spine can be over-stretched or torn. In a rear end collision for example, the victim’s car is first pushed or accelerated forward and then, because their foot is on the brake, or their car hits the vehicle in front, their car is rapidly slowed down, or decelerated. As the vehicle accelerates forward, it pushes the body forward too, but the head remains behind momentarily, rocking up and back, until some of the muscles and ligaments are stretched or torn. Too often the injury occurs before the head rebounds off the headrest (Providing there is one. If not, the injuries sustained are much worse as there is no method to prevent hyperextension from occurring). These muscles, in a reflex action, contract to bring the occupant’ s head forward again, and to prevent excessive injury. This overcompensates because at this point the head is already traveling in a forward direction as the car decelerates. This violently rocks the head forward, stretching and tearing more muscles and ligaments. The soft pulpy discs between the vertebrae can bulge, tear, or rupture. Vertebrae can be forced out of their normal position, reducing range of motion. The spinal cord and nerve roots get stretched, irritated, and choked. If the victim is not properly restrained the occupants head may strike the steering wheel or windshield, possibly causing a concussion. The resulting instability of the spine and soft tissues are noteworthy and depend on several factors. If you feel that you may be whiplashed, please call our office today!
I Still Have Back Pain! Now What?
by Ward Gypson, M.D. Associate Professor, University of California San Francisco, California, USA
Over the past decade, complementary and alternative medicine innovations have received increased awareness and interest by the medical as well as the lay community. In part, this could be explained by an article by David Eisenberg, published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1993, which stated that over 30% of the U.S. population had sought unconventional medical treatments in the preceding year. This outnumbered all the visits to primary care providers that same year.
It is estimated that over $13 billion was spent, and that now over 40% of the population has sought alternative interventions with currently over $27 billion being spent each year.
This does not appear to be due to dissatisfaction with conventional medicine and is not predictive of the use.
Rather, patients want to address their health and medical issues with a variety of methods that go along with their own values, beliefs, and philosophical orientations toward life and health. At the University of California at San Francisco, many physicians are actively exploring a variety of complementary and alternative medicine interventions in an effort to better understand them and to provide safer, more effective medical treatment for their patients. Dr. Ward Gypson, a faculty member in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at UCSF, is a specialist in physical medicine rehabilitation and provides expertise within our department as well as a clinic for patients seeking alternative and complementary interventions.
Does the following sound familiar?
You injured your back quite some time ago. You went to your doctor and initially some medications were prescribed and some physical therapy. The physical therapy either did not help much or in fact it made you worse. After several weeks to months of trying physical therapy you had further testing including x-rays or maybe an MRI scan. After these tests you may have been referred for some special steroid injections into your back of which you had at least three. These may have helped temporarily, but did not significantly resolve the severe pain you are having. Eventually, you underwent surgery. Then after a period of rehabilitation you may have felt some improvement particularly if you had had some pain in your leg. However, you continue to have significant pain in your lower back. By this time many months have past and you are not able to do the things you enjoy and may not have been able to return to work. You are now trying many different medications including opiate containing medications. You have been to see many doctors but what they are telling you is there is not much else they can do for you and what you need to do is learn to live with your pain. You would be a rare individual indeed if you were not somewhat frustrated, angry, and even depressed at this point. If any of this sounds familiar, please read on because there may be some things that can be done to help you.
The first thing I would suggest is to stop looking for a solution. I am not being facetious. What I am talking about is when you fall into the unfortunate circumstance of suffering from chronic low back pain we have found that there is no single solution to the problem. Instead multiple interventions need to be utilized to improve your condition. This is termed a “multidisciplinary” approach. Often a combination of different treatments may help even if some of these treatments have been tried before but not in the same combination. This point cannot be emphasized enough.
Another very important step toward getting better is to understand what pain is. Most of us, including health care professionals, have a very simplistic view of what pain is. Pain to us means there is something that has been damaged or is about to be damaged. A specialized nerve ending senses this pain and sends a message to our spinal cord and up to our brain where we then realize the pain. After all, isn t this why we need pain? So that we can tell when we are injuring ourselves or when we are about to injure ourselves. However this simplistic view of pain does not explain why — when your doctor has told you there is nothing they can find wrong — and the surgery has removed what has been causing damage — and you are all healed and — yet you still have pain.
Pain and Neurotransmitters
This view of pain also does not explain why when we are frustrated or angry our pain seems to be much worse. And when we are distracted, such as watching a movie or engrossed in good conversation our pain may be somewhat less. A new concept of pain is emerging that can explain these things. This concept is based on the fact that there are naturally occurring chemicals used by our nervous system to transmit pain messages. These things are called “neurotransmitters” and there are many different types. Some of these neurotransmitters such as endorphins, which you may have heard of, can help decrease pain. There are other neurotransmitters that may increase pain. One theory in regards to chronic pain is that the nervous system has an imbalance of these naturally occurring neurotransmitters. The ones that help decrease pain do not seem to be working as well — and the ones that increase pain seem to be working in excess. It is almost as though a chemical switch has been turned on that doesn’t turn off. In these situations, the pain message being sent does not signify that something is being damaged or is about to be damaged. Thus it is not a useful message for us and the system is not working the way it should. Or you may find yourself in a situation where you do have a disease process such as degenerative arthritis, which is continuing to send pain messages. However these pain messages are also not useful because there is nothing we can particularly do about the arthritis. This theory of chronic pain being an imbalance of chemical neurotransmitters also will explain how our emotional state and behaviors can affect our pain.
Effects of Behavior and Emotions
Our behaviors as well as our emotional state changes the chemistry in our nervous system thus either enhancing or diminishing our pain. With this new, much more complex concept of what pain is, we can then understand that there are many other approaches that may help manage the chronic pain that you may be suffering from.
Many useful interventions may be things we would not associate with medical treatment. These things are also referred to as “complementary” and “alternative” medicines. I prefer the term “complementary” because this implies multiple interventions, which includes traditional medical interventions. I have found this to be the best approach for the patient suffering from chronic pain. A combination I often recommend for patients is to utilize gentle massage to reduce painful muscle spasms. In addition to this, weekly acupuncture treatments seem to significantly help to reduce pain. Acupuncture is the insertion of tiny sterile needles into the skin at specific points based upon some Chinese medicine principles. In Chinese medicine, acupuncture is used to create a balance of an energy force called the Chi (pronounced “chee” ) within the body. From a scientific standpoint, it has been shown to alter those naturally occurring neurotransmitters, which we talked about. In addition to massage and acupuncture, some gentle movement-based therapies are often effective. Often times your pain may be so bad that traditional exercise just aggravates it. However, we do know that exercise is very beneficial in decreasing pain because it also changes those neurotransmitters. A good way to get some gentle exercise is to utilize techniques such as Tai Chi, Yoga, or Pilates. Tai Chi is also based upon Chinese medicine principles and utilizes slow rhythmic movements to increase strength, balance, endurance, and mobility. Yoga utilizes breathing and relaxation techniques to also increase mobility and strength. Pilates is a technique that is very popular with dancers which seems to be particularly effective for people with lower back pain. It is also a combination of gentle strengthening and stretching, which particularly helps strengthen the lower back and abdominal musculature.
Emotional Consequences of Pain
In addition to addressing the physical components of pain, it is important not to overlook the emotional consequences of chronic pain. Anger, frustration, and depression will alter your neurochemistry to actually increase your pain. However, with a combination of meditation, breathing techniques, and psychological counseling to teach coping strategies, these emotional consequences can be effectively treated. For some of my patients I even recommend such things as humor therapy or making sure they do something daily that they enjoy such as dancing. These things are actually very accessible. You can watch something funny on TV, rent a funny movie or read something humorous. Likewise it is simple to listen to music and move gently to the music even if in a seated position. Interestingly enough, these things have been studied and have been shown to also change those neurotransmitters in a positive way to help decrease pain.
A combination of these interventions with more traditional interventions may not eliminate your pain completely, however many chronic pain patients find that they feel quite a bit better and then are able to be more active, do the things that they like do and enjoy their lives. In other words, they do learn to live with their pain.
Auto Injury Weakens the Neck
It’s difficult to describe the violence of a rear end collision, even one considered to be minor. Using live occupants in rear end crash tests, researchers have found head accelerations can easily reach 9 Gs of force, or nine times the force of gravity. What this means is that the human head—which weighs about 10 pounds, on average—suddenly weighs 90 pounds. In its most simple form, whiplash is this: the occupant’s torso is accelerated in one direction, while the head is going in the opposite direction. In between the head and the torso is the neck, and it’s not surprising that most of the injury takes place in the ligaments that hold the vertebrae together. In fact, the forces on the ligaments of the spine are very high. Ivancic and colleagues()1 at Yale University looked specifically at this issue. They found that during a simulated collision, the force in the lower portion of the neck reached 269.5 Newtons, or about 60 pounds of force, in about 1/20 of a second. The fact is this: the human spine is not built to handle such strains, especially when they are focused on such a small area. Facet ligamentsNumerous studies have found that these forces far exceed the normal physiological range of the ligaments that hold the spine together. A new study(2) by the same Yale researchers has looked more closely at the effects of whiplash on the spinal ligaments. The researchers started with 12 cadaver spines: six of them were exposed to simulated whiplash acceleration, and six were used as controls. The individual facet joints were then removed from the spines and tested to see if there was a difference in laxity of the joints between the two groups. The authors discuss the implications of weakened ligaments after a collision: “Increased CL [capsular ligament] laxity in whiplash patients may be one component perpetuating chronic neck pain and clinical instability. As the CL contains both mechanoreceptive and nociceptive nerve endings, CL injury during whiplash causing increased laxity may potentially injure these structures causing inflammation and pain. Increased CL laxity may cause residual instability, altered loading patterns, and nerve tissue impingement. Partial injury of embedded CL mechanoreceptors due to subfailure stretching of CLs may potentially cause [result in] altered muscle response patterns, muscle spasm, repositioning errors, and altered neck range of motion.” 1. Ivancic PC, Panjabi MM, Shigeki I. Cervical Spine Loads and Intervertebral Motions During Whiplash. Traffic Injury Prevention 2006;7(4):389-399. 2. Ivancic PC, Ito S, Tominaga Y, Rubin W, et al. Whiplash causes increased laxity of cervical capsular ligament. Journal of Clinical Biomechanics 2007;October 22.